Skip to Page Content

 
 

LiONiL: Library Instruction Online for Information Literacy

Module 6: Crediting/Citing/Referencing

Identify elements of a bibliographic citation.

As you collect research materials for your topic, be sure to include basic bibliographic information that you will need to cite the sources you use in your research paper. Even if you don't directly quote or paraphrase from all of the sources you use, you must still cite them in a bibliography at the end of your paper.

The required elements of a bibliographic citation may vary slightly based on the style manual you are using to format and cite your research paper, but generally they include:

For a book: author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication. For MLA, you must also include the format (print or Web).

Example ( MLA):

MacDougall, Robert C. Digination: Identity, Organization, and Public Life in the Age of Small Digital Devices and Big Digital Domains.

Madison [N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2012. Print.

Author: MacDougall, Robert C.
Title: Digination: Identity, Organization, and Public Life in the Age of Small Digital Devices and Big Digital Domains
Place: Madison
Publisher: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press
Date: 2012
Format: Print

For an article: author, title of article, title of journal, volume and issue numbers, date, page numbers. For MLA you must also include the format (print or Web). In addition if article is online, you must also identify the database where you found it.

Example ( MLA):

Massey, Douglas S. "America's Immigration Policy Fiasco: Learning From Past Mistakes." Daedalus 142.3 (2013): 5-15. Academic

Search Premier. Web. 15 Aug. 2013.

Author: Massey, Douglas S.
Title of Article: America's Immigration Policy Fiasco: Learning From Past Mistakes
Source or journal title: Daedalus
Volume, Issue, Date, Pages: 142.3 (2013): 5-15
Database name: Academic Search Premier
Format: Web